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Brass is classified into ordinary brass and special brass depending on the type of alloying elements contained in the brass. Brass for press working is called deformed brass.
Brass is a copper alloy with zinc as the main additive element. It has a beautiful yellow color and is collectively called brass. The copper-zinc binary alloy is called ordinary brass or simple brass. Brass with more than three yuan is called special brass or complex brass. Brass alloys containing less than 36% zinc are composed of solid solution and have good cold workability. For example, brass containing 30% zinc is commonly used to make bullet casings, commonly known as cartridge brass or seven-three brass. Brass alloys containing between 36 and 42% zinc are composed of solid solution, the most common of which is 40% brass with 40% zinc. In order to improve the performance of ordinary brass, other elements such as aluminum, nickel, manganese, tin, silicon, lead, etc. are often added. Aluminum can improve the strength, hardness and corrosion resistance of brass, but it reduces the plasticity and is suitable for seawater condensing pipes and other corrosion resistant parts. Tin can improve the strength of brass and the corrosion resistance to seawater, so it is called naval brass, used as ship thermal equipment and propellers. Lead can improve the cutting performance of brass; this free-cutting brass is often used as a watch part. Brass castings are commonly used to make valves and pipe fittings. 
(1) Room temperature organization of ordinary brass Ordinary brass is a copper-zinc binary alloy, and its zinc content varies widely, so its room temperature structure is also very different. According to the binary state diagram of Cu-Zn (Fig. 6), there are three kinds of room temperature microstructure of brass: brass with a zinc content of less than 35%. The microstructure at room temperature consists of a single-phase α solid solution called α yellow. Copper; brass with a zinc content ranging from 36% to 46%, the microstructure at room temperature consists of two phases (α + β), called (α + β) brass (two-phase brass); For brass with a zinc content of more than 46% to 50%, the microstructure at room temperature consists only of the beta phase, called beta brass.
(2) Pressure processing performance
α single-phase brass (from H96 to H65) has good plasticity and can withstand hot and cold processing, but α single-phase brass is prone to moderate temperature brittleness during hot working such as forging, and its specific temperature range varies with the amount of Zn. The change is generally between 200 and 700 °C. Therefore, the temperature during hot working should be higher than 700 °C. The reason for the occurrence of the moderate-temperature brittle zone of single-phase α-brass is that there are two ordered compounds of Cu3Zn and Cu9Zn in the α-phase region of the Cu-Zn alloy system, which undergo an orderly transformation during medium-low temperature heating to make the alloy brittle; There is a trace amount of lead, antimony harmful impurities and copper forming a low-melting eutectic film distributed on the grain boundary in the alloy, and intergranular cracking occurs during hot working. Practice has shown that the addition of trace amounts of strontium can effectively eliminate moderate temperature brittleness.
Two-phase brass (from H63 to H59), in addition to a well-plastic α phase in the alloy structure, a β-solid solution based on the electron compound CuZn has appeared. The β phase has a high degree of plasticity at high temperatures, while the β' phase (ordered solid solution) at low temperatures is hard and brittle. Therefore, (α + β) brass should be forged in the hot state. The beta brass containing more than 46% to 50% of zinc has a hard and brittle performance and cannot be subjected to pressure processing.
(3) Mechanical properties Brass has different mechanical properties due to different zinc content. Figure 7 shows the mechanical properties of brass as a function of zinc content. For alpha brass, as the amount of zinc increases, both σb and δ increase. For (α+β) brass, the room temperature strength is continuously increased before the zinc content is increased to about 45%. If the amount of zinc is further increased, the r phase having a greater brittleness (solid solution based on a Cu5Zn8 compound) appears in the alloy structure, and the strength is drastically lowered. The room temperature ductility of (α+β) brass always decreases with increasing zinc content. Therefore, copper-zinc alloys containing more than 45% zinc have no practical value.
Ordinary brass is widely used, such as water tank belts, water supply and drainage pipes, medals, bellows, serpentine tubes, condensing tubes, shells, and various shapes of complex products, small hardware and so on. With the increase of zinc content from H63 to H59, they can withstand the hot processing well, and are used in various parts of machinery and electrical appliances, stamping parts and musical instruments.
In order to improve the corrosion resistance, strength, hardness and machinability of brass, a small amount (usually 1% to 2%, a few 3% to 4%, and a very small amount of 5% to 6) is added to the copper-zinc alloy. %) Tin, aluminum, manganese, iron, silicon, nickel, lead and other elements, constitute a ternary, quaternary, or even five-element alloy, which is a complex brass, also known as special brass.
(1) Zinc equivalent coefficient The structure of the complex brass can be estimated based on the "zinc equivalent coefficient" of the elements added to the brass. Since a small amount of other alloying elements are added to the copper-zinc alloy, it is usually only to move the α/(α+β) phase region in the Cu-Zn state diagram to the left or right. Therefore, the structure of special brass is usually equivalent to the structure of ordinary brass which increases or decreases the zinc content. For example, the structure after adding 1% silicon to the Cu-Zn alloy corresponds to an alloy structure in which 10% zinc is added to the Cu-Zn alloy. Therefore, the "zinc equivalent" of silicon is 10. The "zinc equivalent coefficient" of silicon is the largest, and the α/(α+β) phase boundary in the Cu-Zn system is significantly shifted to the copper side, that is, the α phase region is strongly reduced. The "zinc equivalent coefficient" of nickel is a negative value, that is, the alpha phase region is enlarged.
(2) Properties of special brass The α phase and β phase in special brass are multi-component complex solid solution, and the strengthening effect is large, while the α and β phases in ordinary brass are simple Cu-Zn solid solution, and the strengthening effect thereof Lower. Although the zinc equivalent is equivalent, the properties of the multiple solid solution are not the same as those of the simple binary solid solution. Therefore, a small amount of multi-component strengthening is a way to improve the properties of the alloy.
(3) Microstructure and pressure processing properties of several commonly used special deformed brass
Lead Brass: Lead is practically insoluble in brass and is distributed on the grain boundaries in the form of free particles. Lead brass has two kinds of α and (α+β) according to its organization. Since α lead brass has a large harmful effect of lead and has high temperature plasticity, it can only be cold-deformed or hot-extruded. (α+β) lead brass has good plasticity at high temperatures and can be forged.
Tin brass: The addition of tin to brass can significantly improve the heat resistance of the alloy, especially the ability to resist seawater corrosion. Therefore, tin brass is known as “navy brass”.
Tin can be dissolved in a copper-based solid solution to provide solid solution strengthening. However, as the tin content increases, a brittle r phase (CuZnSn compound) appears in the alloy, which is not conducive to plastic deformation of the alloy. Therefore, the tin content of the tin brass is generally in the range of 0.5% to 1.5%.
Commonly used tin brasses are HSn70-1, HSn62-1, HSn60-1 and the like. The former is an alpha alloy with high plasticity and can be processed by cold and hot pressure. The latter two grades of alloy have a (α + β) two-phase structure, and often a small amount of r phase, plasticity at room temperature is not high, can only be deformed in the hot state.
Manganese Brass: Manganese has a greater solubility in solid brass. Adding 1% to 4% manganese to brass can significantly improve the strength and corrosion resistance of the alloy without reducing its plasticity.
Manganese brass has (α + β) structure, commonly used HMn58-2, the pressure processing performance in cold and hot state is quite good.
Iron Brass: In iron brass, iron precipitates as a fine iron-rich phase, which acts as a nucleus to refine grains and prevent recrystallized grains from growing, thereby improving the mechanical properties and process properties of the alloy. The iron content in iron brass is usually less than 1.5%, its structure is (α + β), it has high strength and toughness, plasticity is good at high temperature, and it can be deformed in cold state. The commonly used grade is Hfe59-1-1.
Nickel Brass: Nickel and copper form a continuous solid solution, significantly expanding the alpha phase region. The addition of nickel to brass significantly improves the corrosion resistance of brass in the atmosphere and seawater. Nickel also increases the recrystallization temperature of the brass, which promotes the formation of finer grains.
HNi65-5 nickel brass has a single-phase α structure, which has good plasticity at room temperature and can also be deformed in the hot state, but the content of impurity lead must be strictly controlled, otherwise the thermal processing property of the alloy will be seriously deteriorated.
Brass chemical composition