The dynamic characteristics of the conveyor belt of the belt conveyor are characterized by obvious viscoelastic characteristics. Therefore, to establish the dynamic model of the conveyor belt is to establish the corresponding viscoelastic model. Viscoelasticity is a combination of the viscosity and elasticity of a continuous medium. Viscoelasticity allows belt conveyor belts to have similar solid-like properties such as elasticity, strength, stability and liquid-like properties such as flow characteristics as a function of time, temperature, load size and rate.

In order to analyze the characteristics of the belt conveyor belt, it can be simplified to an ideal elastic model and an ideal viscous model. Combining them constitutes a dynamic model of the belt conveyor analysis of the belt conveyor. The ideal viscous model, also known as the Newtonian viscous model, is typically represented by a damper when the piston is operating in a viscous liquid inside the damper. The speed of movement is proportional to the resistance it receives, ie the stress at a point in the viscous liquid is proportional to the strain rate at that point.

Simple models can be combined into various complex models to establish the mechanical equations of various materials. However, further research indicates that the belt conveyor is not actually the property of all materials can be represented by a combination of simple models, and if there are complex models, there are often mathematical modeling difficulties. Therefore, it is usually based on the test to establish the mechanical equation of the material by using the hypothesis, the test, and the theoretical method.

Linear viscoelasticity refers to the increase or decrease of stress (or strain) proportional to the change of the external load of the belt conveyor within a certain period of time. When the input stress changes, the height of the creep response curve also changes proportionally. . This change also occurs in the relaxation curve. This reflects that the stress-strain ratio of the material is only a function of time under any loading history, and its viscoelasticity changes with time. Therefore, the linear viscoelasticity can be regarded as a combination of a pure elastic material having a constant modulus of elasticity and a purely viscous material having a constant viscosity coefficient. Experiments have shown that for a typical belt conveyor belt, the stress value is related to the material itself within a certain stress limit, and its viscoelasticity is very close to linear.